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The technology backing Fantombittorrent file system earn moneyThe Fantom project began in 2018 and was founded by Korean developer Dr. Ahn Byung Ik. The management and development of the Fantom network is currently handled by the Fantom Foundation. The current CEO of the company is Sydney based Michael Kong.

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Fantom is a programmable platform blockchain built to support Dapps. It was designed to be scalable and positions itself as a chain that can maintain fast, cheap transactions even when the network is busy. It uses a consensus algorithm called Lachesis.As well as being fast and cheap, Fantom is marketed as a more environmentally friendly alternative to Ethereum because it achieves consensus through proof-of-stake as opposed to proof-of-work, the consensus algorithm still used by Ethereum. PoS is much less processing power-intensive than proof-of-work and requires less energy to function.Using the Fantom network will be intuitive for anyone who has interacted with the Ethereum blockchain before. Fantom’s mainnet deployment, Opera, has the exact same functionality as Ethereum because it supports the Solidity programming language and is integrated with the Ethereum Virtual Machine. Applications can be built to be completely interoperable with EVM chains, while still maintaining the transaction model of Fantom. The Fantom website has an excellent guide on how to use Fantom with Metamask.Opera, an EVM compatible mainnet, was launched in December 2019. Fantom is a third-generation blockchain (as are Cardano, Solana, and Polkadot). It seeks to challenge the incumbent centralized, legacy financial network by learning from and improving the architecture used by first and second-generation blockchains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum.Fantom differs from Cardano and Solana in that it directly builds on top of what has already been built for Ethereum.

Fantom is marketed as a cheaper, more scalable version of Ethereum. It uses an Asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerant (aBFT) Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism called Lachesis. Lachesis uses a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) model that is leaderless, unlike the Delegated Proof of Stake consensus model used on other EVM chains like the Binance Smart Chain.The model allows for network data to be processed at different times with the network also capable of tolerating up to one-third of its participants engaging in faulty or malicious behavior without network processes being affected. Lachesis aims to balance fast transaction speed with good security.That could spell the end of Bitcoin, but even a so-called 51% attack would probably not enable the bad actors to reverse old transactions because the proof of work requirement makes that process so labor-intensive. To go back and alter the blockchain, a pool would need to control such a large majority of the network that it would probably be pointless. When you control the whole currency, with whom can you trade?

A 51% attack is a financially suicidal proposition from the miners' perspective. When GHash.io, a mining pool, reached 51% of the network's computing power in 2014, it voluntarily promised to not exceed 39.99% of the Bitcoin hash rate in order to maintain confidence in the cryptocurrency's value. Other actors, such as governments, might find the idea of such an attack interesting, though. But again, the sheer size of Bitcoin's network would make this overwhelmingly expensive, even for a world power.Another source of concern related to miners is the practical tendency to concentrate in parts of the world where electricity is cheap, such as China, or, following a Chinese crackdown in early 2018, Quebec.Bitcoin TransactionsFor most individuals participating in the Bitcoin network, the ins and outs of the blockchain, hash rates, and mining are not particularly relevant. Outside of the mining community, Bitcoin owners usually purchase their cryptocurrency supply through a Bitcoin exchange. These are online platforms that facilitate transactions of Bitcoin and, often, other digital currencies.

El Salvador made Bitcoin legal tender on June 9, 2021.1 It is the first country to do so. The cryptocurrency can be used for any transaction where the business can accept it. The U.S. dollar continues to be El Salvador’s primary currency.Bitcoin exchanges such as Coinbase bring together market participants from around the world to buy and sell cryptocurrencies. These exchanges have been both increasingly popular (as Bitcoin's popularity itself has grown in recent years) and fraught with regulatory, legal, and security challenges. With governments around the world viewing cryptocurrencies in various ways—as currency, as an asset class, or any number of other classifications—the regulations governing the buying and selling of bitcoins are complex and constantly shifting.

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Perhaps even more important for Bitcoin exchange participants than the threat of changing regulatory oversight, however, is that of theft and other criminal activity. Though the Bitcoin network itself has largely been secure throughout its history, individual exchanges are not necessarily the same. Many thefts have targeted high-profile cryptocurrency exchanges, often resulting in the loss of millions of dollars worth of tokens. The most famous exchange theft is likely from Mt. Gox, which dominated the Bitcoin transaction space up through 2014. Early in that year, the platform announced the probable theft of roughly 850,000 BTC worth close to $450 million at the time. Mt. Gox filed for bankruptcy and shuttered its doors; to this day, the majority of that stolen bounty (which would now be worth a total of about $8 billion) has not been recovered.Keys and WalletsFor these reasons, it's understandable that Bitcoin traders and owners will want to take any possible security measures to protect their holdings. To do so, they utilize keys and wallets.Bitcoin ownership essentially boils down to two numbers, a public key and a private key. A rough analogy is a username (public key) and a password (private key). A hash of the public key called an address is the one displayed on the blockchain. Using the hash provides an extra layer of security.

To receive bitcoins, it's enough for the sender to know your address. The public key is derived from the private key, which you need to send bitcoins to another address. The system makes it easy to receive money but requires verification of identity to send it.To access bitcoins, you use a wallet, which is a set of keys. These can take different forms, from third-party web applications offering insurance and debit cards, to QR codes printed on pieces of paper. The most important distinction is between "hot" wallets, which are connected to the Internet and therefore vulnerable to hacking, and "cold" wallets, which are not connected to the Internet. In the Mt. Gox case above, it is believed that most of the BTC stolen were taken from a hot wallet. Still, many users entrust their private keys to cryptocurrency exchanges, which is essentially a bet that those exchanges will have stronger defenses against the possibility of theft than one's own computer would.Bitcoin offers an efficient means of transferring money over the Internet and is controlled by a decentralized network with a transparent set of rules, thus presenting an alternative to central bank-controlled fiat money.1 There has been a great deal of talk about how to price Bitcoin, and we set out here to explore what the cryptocurrency's price might look like in the event it achieves further widespread adoption. First, however, it is useful to back up a step. Bitcoin and other digital currencies have been touted as alternatives to fiat money. But what gives any type of currency value?The currency ticker used for bitcoin is either BTC or XBT.

KEY TAKEAWAYSA bitcoin exchange acts as the intermediary between a seller and a buyer or, to use cryptocurrency language, between a "maker" and a "taker."

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A bitcoin exchange works like a brokerage, and you can deposit money via bank transfer, wire, and other common means of deposit. However, you will often pay a price for this service.If a trader wants to trade between cryptocurrencies, they will pay a currency conversion fee, similar to institutional banks when you trade money from different countries.

Purchases and sales are based on the same ordering system as existing brokerages, where a buyer (taker) places a limit order which is then sold when a corresponding cryptocurrency is available from the seller (maker).Understanding Bitcoin ExchangesBitcoin exchange platforms match buyers with sellers. Like a traditional stock exchange, traders can opt to buy and sell bitcoin by inputting either a market order or a limit order. When a market order is selected, the trader is authorizing the exchange to trade the coins for the best available price in the online marketplace. With a limit order set, the trader directs the exchange to trade coins for a price below the current ask or above the current bid, depending on whether they are buying or selling.To transact in bitcoin on an exchange, a user has to register with the exchange and go through a series of verification processes to authenticate their identity. Once the authentication is successful, an account is opened for the user who then has to transfer funds into this account before they can buy coins.Different exchanges have different payment methods that can be used for depositing funds including bank wires, direct bank transfers, credit or debit cards, bank drafts, money orders and even gift cards. A trader who would like to withdraw money from the account could do so using the options provided by their exchange, which could include a bank transfer, PayPal transfer, check mailing, cash delivery, bank wire, or credit card transfer.Decentralized Exchanges

Decentralized bitcoin exchanges are those that are operated without a central authority. These exchanges allow peer-to-peer trading of digital currencies without the need for an exchange authority to facilitate the transactions.There are a number of benefits to decentralized exchanges. First, many cryptocurrency users feel that decentralized exchanges better match the decentralized structures of most digital currencies themselves; many decentralized exchanges also require less personal information from their members than other types of exchanges. Second, if users transfer assets directly to other users, that eliminates the need for the transferring of assets to the exchange, thereby reducing the risk of theft from hacks and other fraud. Third, decentralized exchanges may be less susceptible to price manipulation and other fraudulent trading activity.

On the other hand, decentralized exchanges (like all cryptocurrency exchanges) must maintain a fundamental level of user interest in the form of trading volume and liquidity. Not all decentralized exchanges have been able to achieve these important baseline qualities. Further, users of a decentralized exchange may have less recourse if they are the victims of fraud than those who make use of exchanges with centralized authorities.Special Considerations

FeesMaking deposits and withdrawals comes at a price, depending on the payment method chosen to transfer funds. The higher the risk of a chargeback from a payment medium, the higher the fee. Making a bank draft or wiring money to the exchange has a lesser risk of a chargeback compared to funding your account with PayPal or a credit/debit card where the funds being transferred can be reversed and returned to the user upon request to the bank.

In addition to transaction fees and funds transfer fees, traders may also be subject to currency conversion fees, depending on the currencies that are accepted by the bitcoin exchange. If a user transfers Canadian dollars to an exchange that only deals in U.S. dollars, the bank or the exchange will convert the CAD to USD for a fee. Transacting with an exchange that accepts your local currency is the best way to avoid the FX fee.All bitcoin exchanges have transaction fees that are applied to each completed buy and sell order carried out within the exchange. The fee rate is dependent on the volume of bitcoin transactions that is conducted.Foreign exchange spreads are important measures when transacting in bitcoin and vary depending on how liquid the bitcoin exchange is.Bitcoin Wallets

Note that a bitcoin exchange is different from a bitcoin wallet. While the former offers a platform through which bitcoin buyers and sellers can transact with each other, the latter is simply a digital storage service for bitcoin holders to store their coins securely. To be more technical, bitcoin wallets store private keys which are used to authorize transactions and access the bitcoin address of a user. Most bitcoin exchanges provide bitcoin wallets for their users, but may charge a fee for this service.Makers and Takers

Online bitcoin marketplaces usually designate bitcoin participants as either makers or takers. When a buyer or seller places a limit order, the exchange adds it to its order book until the price is matched by another trader on the opposite end of the transaction. When the price is matched, the buyer or seller who set the limit price is referred to as a maker. A taker is a trader who places a market order that immediately gets filled.Example of a Bitcoin Exchange

For example, on a bitcoin exchange, three coin sellers are asking for BTC/USD 2265.75, BTC/USD 2269.55, and BTC/USD 2270.00. A trader who initiates a market order to buy bitcoins will have their order filled at the best ask price of 2265.75. If only five bitcoins are available for the best ask and 10 coins are available for 2269.55, and the trader wants to buy 10 at market price, the trader's order will be filled with 5 coins @ 2265.75 and the remaining 5 @ 2269.55.However, a trader who thinks they can get bitcoins for a better price could set a limit order for, say, 2260.10. If a seller matches their ask price with this order or sets a price below this figure, the order will get filled. All of this is done by the exchange, which takes a percentage of each transaction for their business.

Bengaluru | Mumbai: Andreessen Horowitz is in talks to invest in CoinSwitch Kuber, a cryptocurrency platform for retail traders, people familiar with the matter said. If the deal goes through it will be the first bet by a16z—as the Silicon Valley venture capital firm is popularly known—in an Indian startup, sources told ET.“The deal is likely to be completed soon and could be made official later this month,” one of the people cited above said.The capital infusion from a16z will be part of CoinSwitch Kuber’s new funding round, which will push its valuation to just under $2 billion, the sources said, making it a unicorn—startups with a valuation of $1 billion or more. Singapore-based CoinSwitch’s previous fundraise was in April when it raised $25 million from Tiger Global at a valuation of $500 million. That was the New York-based investment firm’s maiden investment in a crypto platform in India.Crypto Tales by CoinSwitch Kuber, a new series where our host, Jatin Sapru will meet some of the experts, the gurus, the pioneers, of the Indian Cryptocurrency universe. In this episode, Jatin meets Rushindra Sinha, CEO, Global Esports, a techie, a gamer, one of the earliest cryptocurrency investors in the world, a crypto trader, crypto consultant and also a doctor. Download CoinSwitch Kuber now and join 10 million Indians on India's largest crypto-trading platform.

A curated weekly summary of forward-focused crypto news that matters. This week, Bitcoin outperforms most large cap altcoins, Coinbase announces a bumper bond sale to raise new funds, and PayPal launches crypto services in the UK.Performance across the digital asset markets was mixed in the last week, with gainers led by a bullish Bitcoin (BTC). The market’s largest and oldest asset was up ~2% to end the week. Ethereum (ETH) and Cardano (ADA), the second and third largest assets in the crypto markets, fell by ~4% and ~13% respectively.

The industry received a strong tailwind after Coinbase, the Nasdaq listed crypto exchange, announced that it will seek to bolster its balance sheet with a US$1.5 billion sale. Coinbase says the raise will be used for general corporate purposes such as investments in product development and the future acquisitions of other companies and technology solutions. Excess demand pushed Coinbase to increase the size of the sale to US2$billion. According to The Economic Times, over $7 billion worth of orders were placed to compete for equal quantities of 7 and 10-year bonds.Demand for crypto trading solutions is also growing rapidly, outpacing the demand to trade legacy markets, according to mobile app data. Data from iOS and Android app-monitoring platform Apptopia reports that Coinbase Pro was the fastest-growing app in finance in the second week of September with a 319% increase in downloads. Voyager, an app that supports the trading of over 60 digital assets, saw a 234% surge in the same period. The mobile app for popular global exchange Binance was fourth on the list with a 120% increase in downloads.

The growth of crypto apps outpaced the growth of personal finance apps like Albert, banking apps like Bank of America Prepaid Mobile, and stock trading apps like Etoro and Stash. It’s clear that the retail crypto market is alive and kicking.A new funnel for retail crypto users has opened in the UK with PayPal completing the rollout of its crypto service offering in the country. An announcement from PayPal on Twitter read, “We are delighted to share that all eligible customers in the UK can now buy, hold and sell #Cryptocurrencies #Bitcoin, #Ethereum, #BitcoinCash & #Litecoin from their PayPal account. Look out for it in the PayPal app.”

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Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC#

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster